Water quality analysis and human health risk assessment of groundwater from open-wells in the vicinity of a cement factory at Akporkloe, South-eastern Ghana.

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e-Journal of Science and Technology


The influence of the Diamond Cement (DIACEM) factory at Akporkploe, Volta Region of Ghana on groundwater quality within the environs of the factory was investigated. During the study, groundwater samples were collected from six drinking water supply wells in the east, north-east, north and north-west directions of the cement facility. Quality parameters including temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity and TDS were measures in-situ and XRF analysis was used in the measurement of some heavy metals (As, Cr, Ni and Pb). The study detected that parameters including temperature, salinity, alkalinity and nutrients fell below the WHO permissible level for drinking water. However, some parameters like pH, conductivity, turbidity and TDS adversely deviated from the WHO recommended standards. The high TDS and conductivity levels detected is an indication of high salt content which was attributed to cement dust intrusion. Since, the inhabitants of the study area depends heavily on these wells for drinking and other domestic uses, human health risk assessment studies was also carried out in respect of the heavy metals on the water samples. Apart from arsenic, all the concentrations of the other metals were above stipulated levels specified by the WHO. No non-carcinogenic effects were detected regarding the use of the water from ingestion and dermal contact pathways point of view. Aggregate situation regarding ingestion and dermal contact specified that cancer risk due to the use of the groundwater is possible. Based on these findings the study recommended among others that health authorities should have the groundwater treated before public use.



Groundwater,, Water quality, Heavy metals, Cement factory, Health risk assessment, Cancer risk