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UGSpace is the institutional repository of the University of Ghana. UGSpace is an open access electronic archive for the collection, preservation and distribution of digital materials.

  • facilitate the deposit of digital content of a scholarly or heritage nature
  • and ultimately share, preserve and promote the intellectual output of the University in a managed environment.

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Recent Submissions

Self-Care Practices Among Elderly Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus At The Greater Accra Regional Hospital
(University Of Ghana, 2022-09) Amakye-Nyame, N.C.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has become a major public health problem in Ghana, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and the entire globe. Diabetes is among the four non-communicable diseases globally. Studies have revealed that Ghana has been experiencing an increased number of aged populations who are likely to suffer from chronic diseases such as diabetes and increase demand for healthcare. Therefore, diabetes self-care practices among the elderly living with type-2 diabetes mellitus are very crucial in its management as poor self-care results in complications. However, in Ghana, little scholarly attention has been given to diabetes self-care practices among older adults living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Therefore, the reason for conducting a qualitative study was to explore the self-care practices of elderly patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at the Greater Accra Regional Hospital. Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1986) was used to guide the study. An exploratory descriptive design with a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit twelve (12) participants after saturation was achieved. A face-to-face interview was done using a semi structured interview guide and audiotaped. Transcriptions of the collected data were done verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the data received. Four major themes emerged after the analysis of collected data. These were: Knowledge of diabetes self-care, Self-regulation practices in diabetes management, Barriers that affect the management of diabetes, and a support system received by elderly patients in diabetes management. The findings of the study revealed that some of the participants knew self-care practices such as eating healthy, self-monitoring of blood glucose levels, and foot care practices among others, and were empowered, motivated, and achieved good results whilst others too were not engaging in effective diabetes self-care activities due to certain environmental impediments which served as barriers. It revealed financial hardship as one of the major barriers faced by elderly diabetes patients despite partial coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Therefore, diabetes patients should be given high-quality adequate diabetes education, and delivery of diabetes education should include other formats such as video, leaflets, and written). Diabetes education can also be done at the community level for elderly diabetes. The government should make diabetes carefree for older adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Developing theory-based approaches to care for individuals with diabetes can create a more progressive, coherent body of knowledge to assist healthcare providers in effectively teaching and coaching patients’ diabetes self-care. Diabetes self-care among elderly patients is suboptimal. Therefore, Diabetes education by health professionals should also include patient empowerment and culturally sensitive approaches that will be accepted by individuals with diabetes. In managing diabetes, it can be concluded that diabetes self-care practices which are healthy eating, medication adherence, self-monitoring of blood glucose, physical activity, and foot care practices are the key elements required for diabetes patients to stay healthy with improved quality of life. For that barriers to diabetes management should be given serious attention by stakeholders (hospitals, health professionals, health programmers, community leaders, government, etc) of this group.
Towards standardised and valid anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in middle childhood and adolescence
(The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 2022) Lelijveld, N.; Ezzati, M.; Mates, E.; et al.
There is growing recognition of the significance of nutrition across middle childhood (5–9 years) and adolescence (10–19 years), particularly in the context of global food insecurity and rising overweight and obesity. Until now, policymakers have been slow to respond to rapidly changing patterns of malnutrition across these years. One barrier has been a lack of consistent and regular nutrition surveillance systems for this age group. There is ongoing debate around what should be measured, as well as how best to operationalize anthropometric indicators that have been the cornerstone of nutrition surveillance in younger children and adults. Even with consensus on the importance of a given anthropometric indicator, different terminologies, reference data and cut-offs present difficulties in interpreting trends over time and between countries. We highlight the need for revisiting anthropometric indicators across middle childhood and adolescence, a process that will require WHO and UNICEF coordination, with the engagement of national implementors and policymakers, and partnership with the research communities and donors.
Adolescent Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of the Impact of the Pandemic on Developmental Milestones
(Behavioral Sciences, 2022) Garagiola, E.R.; Asafo, S.; Lam, Q.; et al.
This review explores the literature regarding the ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the navigation of developmental milestones among adolescents, specifically those in late adolescence, across several domains of their lives. The exploration is contextualized globally. focusing on five key areas: mental health, physical health, education, peer relationships, and family relationships. Implications for practice and interventions are explored in each key area to provide recommendations for those working with adolescents, as well as future research. The changes brought about by the pandemic and the readjustment to what some have referred to as the “new normalcy” will undoubtedly have lasting effects on all areas of life for this cohort of adolescents. who have shown remarkable resilience navigating this new and unfamiliar world. These changes are synthesized, with the aim of highlighting differences and similarities of the shared experiences of the pandemic globally. After exploring the current realities, this chapter goes on to outline the ways in which which the experience of such a significant developmental period of one’s life during the COVID-19 pandemic will have an impact on adolescents for years to come. Although it is still impossible to comprehend the long-term effects, In examining proximal effects, we can postulate distal implications and potential future effects, as well as possible ways to mitigate these implications as we transition back to more of what was experienced pre-pandemic life, from a post-pandemic experience.
Does China’s Flow of FDI and Institutional Quality Matter for Poverty? Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa
(Journal of Asian and African Studies, 2023) Iddrisu, K.; Abor, J.Y.; Insaidoo, M.; Banyen, K.T.
The study adds to the discussion on the necessity for Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to eradicate poverty, as outlined in SDG 1 and Africa’s Agenda 2063. This contribution was successful in achieving some key objectives. First, we examine the impact of Chinese FDI and institutional quality on the eradication of poverty in SSA. Second, we test empirically whether institutional quality can help Chinese FDI to reduce poverty in SSA. Using an annual dataset for 36 SSA countries for a 20-year period ending in 2020, our pooled OLS results showed that Chinese FDI does not reduce poverty unless there are strong institutions and good governance. Also, the results showed that strong institutions and good governance reduce poverty in SSA. As a result, we recommend that governments establish policies to develop systems and structures that encourage industrialization and attract foreign investors for SSA to reap the full benefits of Chinese FDI.
Does the Inverse Farm Size-Productivity Hypothesis Hold Beyond Five Hectares? Evidence from Ghana
(Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 2022) Debrah, G.; Adanu, K.
We contribute to the inverse farm size-productivity puzzle (IR) literature by examining the relationship using a unique data set from southern Ghana that covers farms between 5 and 70 ha. The study uses an instrumental variable (IV) for land size to mitigate some effects of measurement error in land size. The inverse relationship between farm size and farm productivity is upheld when ordinary least squares estimators (OLS) are applied but becomes insignificant, although still negative in the IV estimation. The results show that measurement error in land size attenuate the IR. While some studies found the IR to flatten and then become positive, this study finds that in Ghana, the IR only flattens.
Digital content marketing and consumer brand engagement on social media- do influencers’ brand content moderate the relationship?
(Journal of Marketing Communications, 2023) Odoom, R.
Digital content marketing (DCM) has been found to be effective in engaging consumers with brands, particularly on social media. Complementing DCM pursuits with social media influencers’ (SMIs) brand content can further enhance the ameliorating results. This study aimed to empirically assess DCM’s relationship with consumer brand engagement on social media and how SMI’s brand content moderates this relationship. Through a quantitative approach, the empirical data was purposefully collected from 1022 respondents via a web-based survey questionnaire. The findings indicate that DCM campaigns with information, entertainment, commercial and emotional focus have positive relationships with consumer brand engagement, except when DCM campaigns have negative emotional elements. Moreover, the brand content of SMIs significantly moderates the relationship between DCM elements and brand engagement. However, DCM campaigns with negative emotional elements have a negative relationship on brand engagement when SMI is a moderator. This study is significant as it empirically tests the interplay among DCM, SMIs, and brand engagement on social media, contributing to the literature on this topic.
Parliamentary Primaries After Democratic Transitions: Explaining Reforms To Candidate Selection In Ghana
(African Affairs, 2022) Dodsworth, S.; Alidu, S.M.; Bauer, G.; Bukari, G.A.
Candidate selection procedures play a crucial role in shaping parliaments and influencing the quality of democracy. Yet, our understanding of what motivates parties to reform candidate selection mechanisms at specific points in time is limited. To address this gap, we examine the experience of Ghana’s National Democratic Congress (NDC), which reformed its selection procedures in 2015, allowing all party members to vote in primary elections for parliamentary candidates. We ask what triggered these reforms and identify four motivations—the confluence of which explains why the reforms were adopted in 2015. These motivations were: making the party more democratic by expanding participation and reducing the cost of the primary process, building the party’s organizational capacity, and keeping up with the party’s main competitor. Together, these led NDC leaders to believe that reforms would benefit the party. However, a divergence between actual and intended effects meant some of these benefits were not realized, so the NDC reversed its reforms. This case suggests that the current shift towards more inclusive candidate selection mechanisms across parts of Africa will not be linear. party leaders will adopt such reforms when they believe it is in their party’s interest.
The effect of the capitation policy withdrawal on maternal health service provision in Ashanti Region, Ghana: an interrupted time series analysis
(Global Health Research and Policy, 2022) Yambah, J.K.; Atinga, R.A.; Mensah, K.A.; et al.
Background: Payment methods are known to influence maternal care delivery in health systems. Ghana suspended a piloted capitation provider payment system after nearly five years of implementation. This study aimed to examine the effects of Ghana’s capitation policy on maternal health care provision as part of lesson learning and bridging this critical literature gap. Methods: We used secondary data in the District Health Information Management System-2 and an interrupted time series design to assess changes in level and trend in the provision of ANC4+ (visits of pregnant women making at least the fourth antenatal care attendance per month), HB36 (number of hemoglobin tests conducted for pregnant women who are at the 36th week of gestation) and vaginal delivery in capitated facilities (CHPS) (community-based Health Planning and Services) facilities and hospitals. Results: The results show that the capitation policy withdrawal was associated with a statistically significant trend increase in the provision of ANC4+ in hospitals (coefficient 70.99, p<0. 001) but no effect in CHPS facilities. Also, the policy withdrawal resulted in contrasting effects in hospitals and CHPS in the trend of provision of Hb36; a statistically A significant decline was observed in CHPS (coefficient −7.01, p<0.05), while that of hospitals showed a statistically significant trend increase (coefficient 32.87, p<0.001). Finally, the policy withdrawal did not affect trends of vaginal delivery rates in both CHPS and hospitals. Conclusions: The capitation policy in Ghana appeared to have had a different effect on the provision of maternal services in both CHPS and hospitals; repressing maternal care provision in hospitals and promoting adherence to anemia testing at term for pregnant women in CHPS facilities. Policy makers and stakeholders should consider the possible detrimental effects on maternal care provision and quality in the design and implementation of per capita primary care systems as they can potentially impact the achievement of SDG 3
Time-varying connectedness and contagion between commodity prices and exchange rate in Sub-Saharan Africa
(Cogent Economics & Finance, 2023) Opoku, R.T.; Isshaq, Z.M.; Adam, A.M.; Owusu, P.J.
Market participants, policymakers, and practitioners might have ignored the connection between global commodities and the currency markets in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential for contagion at various time scales. We examine the degree of time-varying connectivity and contagion between commodities and the exchange rates of sub-Saharan African countries (SSA). We use the Barunik and Krehlik (BK18) spillover index on monthly data from 1990 to 2019 to illustrate the dynamic connectivity in the time and frequency domains. The BK18 captures the nonlinear, nonstationary, asymmetric, and time-dependent comovements in the relationship. Our analysis indicates that the relationship between commodity returns and exchange rates in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is both time- and frequency-dependent, but stronger at higher frequencies. We observe that, among Of the three commodities, only crude oil is a dominant spillover propagator. The exchange rates of South Africa dominate spillover transmission among metal-producing countries, and those of Cote d’Ivoire dominate agricultural-producing countries. countries. The dynamic results reveal significant spillovers between commodities and exchange rates during economic turmoil, indicating contagion among the markets. Since uncertainty spillover is more severe amid market upheaval, investors should use their awareness of market dynamics and fluctuations to protect their holdings from lower asset returns. Policymakers should keep a close eye on spillovers because they endanger cross-market connections
The moderating influence of celebrity endorsement on intention to engage in infection prevention behaviours
(Health Promotion International, 2023) Coffie, I.S.; Tweneboah-Koduah, E.Y.; Ocloo, E.C.; Mann, V.
Although the use of celebrities for communication within social marketing to influence voluntary behaviour change has received significant attention, its application to promote infection-preventive behaviours, such as frequent handwashing with soap, has received limited attention. Using the health belief model (HBM), the study examined the moderating effect of celebrity endorsement (CE) on the relationship between the predictors of HBM, such as perceived severity, susceptibility, benefits, barriers, self-efficacyand target audiences’ intention to avoid handshaking, frequently wash hands with soap and cover mouth with an elbow when coughing. Data from 562 respondents were analysed using PLS-SEM. The result shows that CE is significantly moderate the relationship between target audiences’ perception of severity, susceptibility, self-efficacy and cues to action and intention to perform the recommended infection-preventive behaviours. Thus, when a celebrity is employed as a conduit for delivering a social marketing message, particularly about infection preventive behaviour, target audiences are more likely to take action to perform the recommended behaviour. Theoretically, the study shows that although the HBM has been extensively applied to explain health-related behaviours, using celebrities to endorse the various constructs of the HBM significantly enhances the predictive ability of the model.