Pneumococcal Carriage among Hiv Positive Children at The Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital

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dc.contributor.advisor Sampane-Donkor, E.
dc.contributor.advisor Badoe, E. Annan, J. A.
dc.contributor.other University of Ghana, College of Health Sciences, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, Department of Medical Microbiology 2016-06-10T10:18:51Z 2017-10-13T18:00:09Z 2016-06-10T10:18:51Z 2017-10-13T18:00:09Z 2015-07
dc.description Thesis (MPhil.) - University of Ghana, 2015
dc.description.abstract Background: The pneumococcus is carried as a normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and carriage is the precursor for development of pneumococcal disease, and is also responsible for pneumococcal transmission from person-to-person. HIV positive children have about forty times greater risk of invasive pneumococcal disease compared to healthy children. In Africa, little is known about the pneumococcus in relation to people with HIV infection. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage among HIV positive children at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Method: One hundred and eighteen HIV positive children were recruited at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from them. The specimens were cultured for S. pneumoniae and other bacteria, and isolates were identified by standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out on S. pneumoniae isolates by the Kirby Bauer method. Epidemiological data on demographic, household and clinical features of the study participant were collected. Results: Bacterial agents isolated from the study subjects included Moraxella catarrhalis (39.8%), coagulase negative staphylococci (33.1%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (30.5%), viridans streptococci (27.1%), diptheroids (29.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (22.0%), Citrobacter spp. (4.2%) and Neisseria meningitidis (0.9%). Pneumococcal carriage among different age groups were 33.3% (<5 years), 33.3% (5-9 years) and 28.9% (> 9 years). The only determinant of pneumococcal carriage among the study participants was the presence of respiratory symptoms (p=0.008). Pneumococcal resistance, to the various antibiotics tested, were to cotrimoxazole (58.3%), tetracycline (33.3%), erythromycin (33.3%), oxacillin (27.8%) and ceftriaxone (5.6%). Conclusion: About a third of the HIV positive children carried the pneumococcus as normal flora in the nasopharynx and carriage appears to be unaffected by demographic and household characteristics. The presence of respiratory symptoms may probably be the main risk factor of pneumococcal carriage among HIV positive children. Ceftriaxone may be a relatively suitable antibiotic for treating pneumococcal infections among HIV positive children in Accra. en_US
dc.format.extent xii, 72p. : ill.
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Ghana en_US
dc.title Pneumococcal Carriage among Hiv Positive Children at The Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.rights.holder University of Ghana

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