|Title:||Contaminant Hydrology: Concepts of Oil Pollution and Environmental Management|
|Abstract:||Oil contamination in soils, aquifer, and sea can pose threats to water resources and other ecosystems agents. In this chapter I will discuss physical and institutional characteristics of oil contaminants management in surface water, soil water, groundwater, and ocean. The contaminants include Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) and Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL). Oil contaminants that enter through soil surface may undergo through the following processes: Dissolution, Advection, Dispersion, Diffusion, Adsorption, Volatilization, and Biodegradation. As the oil pollutants travel through hydrological cycle there are various risks associated with exposure of it to environment. When it is exposed to human beings it is called Human toxicological risks; when it is exposed to ecology we call it Eco-toxicological risks, and finally when it spreads to join other water bodies we call it Spreading risks. These risks can be stopped through assessment and implementation of five-step environmental remediation framework that include Environmental Site Assessment (ESA), Threshold Value Assessment, Mapping and Modelling of Contaminants, Oil Contaminant Risk Assessment, and Choosing appropriate environmental Remediation techniques. This basic knowledge in contaminant hydrology can help manage environmental problems associated with large scale oil exploration and production in Ghana.|
|Appears in Collections:||Geography|
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