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Title: Plasma levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in Ghanaian children with vaccine-modified measles.
Authors: Tetteh, J.K.A.
Addae, M.M.
Commey, J.O.O.
Ishiwada, N.
Yempewu, S.M.
Yamaguchi, S.
Ofori-Adjei, D.
Issue Date: 2003
Citation: Tetteh, J. K. A., Addae, M. M., Ishiwada, N., Yempewu, S. M., Yamaguchi, S., Ofori-Adjei, D., . . . Akanmori, B. D. (2003). Plasma levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in Ghanaian children with vaccine-modified measles. European Cytokine Network, 14(2), 109-113.
Abstract: To understand the pathogenesis of vaccine-modified measles (VMM), we measured plasma levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 (Th1 cytokines), IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines), IL-12, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 in children with uncomplicated measles, who had anti-measles IgG antibodies and with a history of immunization on admission (day 0), day 14 and day 60. We compared these to levels in healthy, age-matched, immunized children. Plasma levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-12 were significantly higher in VMM patients on day 0 compared to healthy controls (p = 0.023; p = 0.018; p = 0.001) respectively. In contrast, plasma IL-4 was lower in VMM patients on day 0 when compared to the controls (p = 0.009). Plasma levels of IL-12 remained consistently high on days 14 and 60 (p = 0.001; p = 0.04), whilst IL-10 levels fell significantly on the same days (p = 0.002; p = 0.001) respectively. Kinetically, IFN-gamma and IL-10 levels decreased consistently from day 0 to days 14 and 60 in VMM patients. In contrast, IL-4 levels increased from day 0 to day 14 and day 60. Our results therefore suggest that VMM is associated with an early up-regulation of Th1 cytokine production and a down-regulation of Th2 cytokine production. The strong Th1 response may be associated with the induction of IL-12 and memory cells, thus contributing to the early resolution of the infection and lack of complications.
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