Rice Grain Cadmium Concentrations in the Global Supply‑Chain

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dc.contributor.author Adomako, E.
dc.contributor.author Shi, Z.
dc.contributor.author Carey, M.
dc.contributor.author Meharg, C.
dc.contributor.author Williams, P.N.
dc.contributor.author Signes‑Pastor, A.J.
dc.contributor.author Triwardhani, E.A.
dc.contributor.author Pandiangan, F.I.
dc.contributor.author Campbell, K.
dc.contributor.author Elliott, C.
dc.contributor.author Marwa, E.M.
dc.contributor.author Jiujin, X.
dc.contributor.author Farias, J.G.
dc.contributor.author Nicoloso, F.T.
dc.contributor.author De Silva, P.M.C.S.
dc.contributor.author Lu, Y.
dc.contributor.author Norton, G.
dc.contributor.author Green, A.J.
dc.contributor.author Moreno‑Jiménez, E.
dc.contributor.author Zhu, Y.
dc.contributor.author Carbonell‑Barrachina, A.A.
dc.contributor.author Haris, P.I.
dc.contributor.author Lawgali, Y.F.
dc.contributor.author Sommella, S.
dc.contributor.author Pigna, M.
dc.contributor.author Brabet, C.
dc.contributor.author Montet, D.
dc.contributor.author Njira, K.
dc.contributor.author Watts, M.J.
dc.contributor.author Hossain, M.
dc.contributor.author Islam, M.R.
dc.contributor.author Tapia, Y
dc.contributor.author Oporto, C.
dc.contributor.author Meharg, A.A.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-07-27T13:31:02Z
dc.date.available 2020-07-27T13:31:02Z
dc.date.issued 2020-02-19
dc.identifier.citation Shi, Z., Carey, M., Meharg, C. et al. Rice Grain Cadmium Concentrations in the Global Supply-Chain. Expo Health (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-020-00349-6 en_US
dc.identifier.other https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-020-00349-6
dc.identifier.uri http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh/handle/123456789/35707
dc.description Research Article en_US
dc.description.abstract One of cadmium’s major exposure routes to humans is through rice consumption. The concentrations of cadmium in the global polished (white), market rice supply-chain were assessed in 2270 samples, purchased from retailers across 32 countries, encompassing 6 continents. It was found on a global basis that East Africa had the lowest cadmium with a median for both Malawi and Tanzania at 4.9 μg/kg, an order of magnitude lower than the highest country, China with a median at 69.3 μg/ kg. The Americas were typically low in cadmium, but the Indian sub-continent was universally elevated. In particular certain regions of Bangladesh had high cadmium, that when combined with the high daily consumption rate of rice of that country, leads to high cadmium exposures. Concentrations of cadmium were compared to the European Standard for polished rice of 200 μg/kg and 5% of the global supply-chain exceeded this threshold. For the stricter standard of 40 μg/kg for processed infant foods, for which rice can comprise up to 100% by composition (such as rice porridges, puffed rice cereal and cakes), 25% of rice would not be suitable for making pure rice baby foods. Given that rice is also elevated in inorganic arsenic, the only region of the world where both inorganic arsenic and cadmium were low in grain was East Africa. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Exposure and Health en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries ;2020
dc.subject Arsenic en_US
dc.subject Cadmium en_US
dc.subject Exposure route en_US
dc.subject Rice en_US
dc.title Rice Grain Cadmium Concentrations in the Global Supply‑Chain en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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