Genomic Epidemiology in Filarial Nematodes: Transforming the Basis for Elimination Program Decisions

Show simple item record Boakye, D.A. Hedtke, S.M. Kuesel, A.C. Crawford, K.E. Graves, P.M. Boussinesq, M. Lau, C.L. Boakye, D.A. Grant, W.N. 2020-03-12T11:38:20Z 2020-03-12T11:38:20Z 2020-01-09
dc.identifier.citation Hedtke SM, Kuesel AC, Crawford KE, Graves PM, Boussinesq M, Lau CL, Boakye DA and Grant WN (2020) Genomic Epidemiology in Filarial Nematodes: Transforming the Basis for Elimination Program Decisions. Front. Genet. 10:1282. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2019.01282 en_US
dc.identifier.other doi: 10.3389/fgene.2019.01282
dc.description Research Article en_US
dc.description.abstract Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are targeted for elimination, primarily using mass drug administration at the country and community levels. Elimination of transmission is the onchocerciasis target and global elimination as a public health problem is the end point for lymphatic filariasis. Where program duration, treatment coverage, and compliance are sufficiently high, elimination is achievable for both parasites within defined geographic areas. However, transmission has re-emerged after apparent elimination in some areas, and in others has continued despite years of mass drug treatment. A critical question is whether this re-emergence and/or persistence of transmission is due to persistence of local parasites—i.e., the result of insufficient duration or drug coverage, poor parasite response to the drugs, or inadequate methods of assessment and/or criteria for determining when to stop treatment—or due to re-introduction of parasites via human or vector movement from another endemic area. We review recent genetics-based research exploring these questions in Onchocerca volvulus, the filarial nematode that causes onchocerciasis, and Wuchereria bancrofti, the major pathogen for lymphatic filariasis. We focus in particular on the combination of genomic epidemiology and genome-wide associations to delineate transmission zones and distinguish between local and introduced parasites as the source of resurgence or continuing transmission, and to identify genetic markers associated with parasite response to chemotherapy. Our ultimate goal is to assist elimination efforts by developing easy-to-use tools that incorporate genetic information about transmission and drug response for more effective mass drug distribution, surveillance strategies, and decisions on when to stop interventions to improve sustainability of elimination en_US
dc.description.sponsorship TDR, the Unicef/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases provided the funds for open access of this review and support for SMH (B80149 and B80153). KEC was supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Frontiers in Genetics en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries 10;1282
dc.subject population genomics en_US
dc.subject onchocerciasis en_US
dc.subject lymphatic filariasis en_US
dc.subject transmission en_US
dc.subject parasite elimination en_US
dc.subject drug resistance en_US
dc.subject epidemiology en_US
dc.title Genomic Epidemiology in Filarial Nematodes: Transforming the Basis for Elimination Program Decisions en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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  • Parasitology Department [253]
    The Department of Parasitology conducts research into parasitic diseases of public health importance with the overall goal of reducing their transmission and the heavy disease burden that they impose on affected populations. The Department maintains focus on parasitic diseases in general. These include major diseases such as malaria, and others listed under the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) control initiative such as, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

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