Influence of particle size and total organic carbon on the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill soils: assessment of exposure implications

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dc.contributor.author Akortia, E.
dc.contributor.author Lupankwa, M.
dc.contributor.author Okonkwo, J.O.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-09-25T09:35:07Z
dc.date.available 2019-09-25T09:35:07Z
dc.date.issued 2019-05-30
dc.identifier.other https://doi.org/10.1186/s40543-019-0182-4
dc.identifier.uri http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh/handle/123456789/32284
dc.description Research Article en_US
dc.description.abstract Background: The selection of soil fraction is an important influencing factor to accurately determine human exposure risk to toxic chemicals in the environment. The present study evaluated the concentrations of prevalent polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different size fractions of soil from a landfill site and the factors that influence their distribution in the soils. Method: Samples were fractionated into size fractions; between 150–250 and 45–150 μm (after initial sieving through a 250 μm sieve) and, thereafter, PBDEs were extracted using a mixture of toluene-dichloromethane and subsequently cleaned with a multilayer silica gel/Pesticarb/sodium sulphate column and analysed using GC-MS. Results: The sum of seven PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -100, -99, -154, -153 and -183) ranged from 7.08 to 10.8 ng g−1 with a total median of 7.32 ng g−1, and from 7.00 to 8.77 ng g−1 with a total median of 7.21 ng g−1, corresponding to size fractions 150–250 μm and 45–150 μm, respectively. BDE-183 was predominant in both soil fractions. A significant correlation was observed between Σ7PBDEs concentrations and total organic carbon (TOC), particularly for particle size 150–250 μm (r2 = 0.829, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study revealed that PBDE concentrations did not automatically increase with decreasing particle size, and as such, PBDE-treated consumer goods and consequent abrasions of flame retardant-containing materials could be likely sources. The study also clarified that selecting soil fractions arbitrarily for exposure risk assessment may lead to inconclusive results. The study results, therefore, have important inferences for estimating flame retardant chemical exposure. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Journal of Analytical Science and Technology en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries ;2019
dc.subject PBDEs en_US
dc.subject Human exposure en_US
dc.subject TOC en_US
dc.subject Particle size en_US
dc.subject Soil en_US
dc.subject South Africa en_US
dc.title Influence of particle size and total organic carbon on the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill soils: assessment of exposure implications en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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