Factors of Rapid Repeat Pregnancy and Its Consequences on Depression among Adolescents in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.

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dc.contributor.author Amuasi, S.A.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-05-14T12:08:45Z
dc.date.available 2019-05-14T12:08:45Z
dc.date.issued 2018-07
dc.identifier.uri http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh/handle/123456789/30024
dc.description PhD. en_US
dc.description.abstract Rapid repeat pregnancy (RRP) is defined as pregnancy onset within 24 months of the previous pregnancy outcome. RRP has been identified to result from different situations and as such might create different risks to the individual. Several studies have shown an association between RRP and mental health issues such as anxiety, emotional stress, depression, aggression and poorer education attainment. There is a pint-size consensus as to which risk factors are the very key predictors of RRP and whether the outcome (RRP) may lead to depression. This study seeks to identify the main risk factors that could lead to RRP and its consequences on depression among adolescents. METHODS: A mixed method approach (quantitative and qualitative) was used for this study which was conducted in 12 public health facilities in the Greater Accra Region. An unmatched case-control study design was used for the study. The cases were adolescent girls aged between 15 and 19 years who have had more than one pregnancy within two years. Controls were adolescent girls aged between 15 and 19 years who have had one pregnancy which either ended an abortion or delivery with more than twenty-four months spacing. The sample size for the quantitative method was n= 417 with 209 controls and 208 cases. Both the qualitative and quantitative components were hospital-based. Six FGDs were conducted among the control group in six of the selected hospitals and involved a total of forty-six adolescents. Eleven In-depth Interviews (IDI) were also held with every eligible adolescent who had experienced RRP (case) in six of the twelve health facilities selected for the research. STATA 15 MP (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) was used to analyze the quantitative aspect of the work. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with p-value of <0.05 considered as significant. Composite score analysis was used in estimating the level of depression among the participants using Beck’s Depression Inventory scale. The qualitative data were audio recorded, translated into English and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was adopted for the analysis. Data triangulation was done to support the quantitative data using the qualitative data. RESULTS: There were two outcome variables in the study. The first one was the risk factors for RRP and the second was the effect of RRP on depression. Risk factors for RRP: The median ages at menarche between cases and controls were 12 and 13 years respectively and it was observed that most of the girls who experienced menarche at age 12 years and below were involved in early sexual activity (age at first sexual intercourse) than those who did not. It was also revealed in the study that the number of times a pregnant adolescent visits the hospital for ANC had some form of influence on the risk of RRP. The peers of the adolescents were the main source of information on issues of sex among the cases as compared with the control group. Transactional sex was more common among the cases than the controls. In a univariate analysis variables that showed significance as risk factors for RRP were planning of last pregnancy, history of miscarriage, married or living with partner, parental care, and at least 4 ANC visits. All these variables were significantly associated with odds of RRP. There was an evidence that the odds of RRP for the adolescents who have ever had a miscarriage was about eight times more than that among those who have never had a miscarriage (aOR=7.92; 95%CL: 3.18-19.71; p<0.0001). Effect of RRP on depression: The risk of being depressed among cases were 19% higher than the control group (crude RR=1.19; 95%Cl=0.99 to 1.43; p=0.070). After adjusting for the confounding variables, this increased significantly to 36% higher risk of being depressed (adjusted RR=1.36; 95%Cl=1.11 to 1.67; p=0.003) suggesting an evidence of association between RRP and depression. CONCLUSION: This research has identified the main risk factors of RRP to be, age at menarche, marital status, parental care and support, number of times of ANC visits, sex education and transactional sex. Again the study has investigated the extent to which having subsequent birth in less than 24 months (Rapid Repeat Pregnancy) could adversely affect psychological state of an adolescent mother. The results from this study could provide an insight into designing targeted interventions by policy makers and other stakeholders. Key words: Rapid Repeat Pregnancy, depression, unmatched case-control, mixed method, Antenatal visits transactional sex, menarche, cases, controls. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University Of Ghana en_US
dc.subject Rapid Repeat Pregnancy (RRP) en_US
dc.subject Depression en_US
dc.subject Adolescents en_US
dc.subject Greater Accra Region en_US
dc.title Factors of Rapid Repeat Pregnancy and Its Consequences on Depression among Adolescents in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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