An assessment of the origin and variation of groundwater salinity in southeastern Ghana

Show simple item record Yidana, S.M. Yidana, A. 2019-04-25T10:27:06Z 2019-04-25T10:27:06Z 2010-09
dc.identifier.citation Yidana, S.M. & Yidana, A. Environ Earth Sci (2010) 61: 1259. en_US
dc.identifier.other Volume 61, Issue 6, pp 1259–1273
dc.description.abstract Groundwater from the major aquifers in southeastern part of Ghana was sampled to determine the main controls on groundwater salinity in the area. This paper uses multivariate statistical methods, conventional graphical methods and stable isotope data to determine spatial relationships among groundwaters from the different hydrogeologic units in the area on the basis of salinity. Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to spatially classify the samples, whilst R-mode factor analysis was used to reduce the dataset into two major principal components representing the sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. Analysis of the major chemical parameters suggests that the principal component responsible for salinity increment in the area is the weathering of minerals in the aquifers. This factor is especially more significant in the upland areas away from the coast. The second factor responsible for salinity in the area is the combined effects of seawater intrusion, and anthropogenic activities. This study finds that four major spatial groundwater groups exist in the area: low salinity, acidic groundwaters which are mainly derived from the Birimian and Togo Series aquifers; low salinity, moderate to neutral pH groundwaters which are mainly from the Voltaian, Buem and Cape Coast granitoids; very high salinity waters which are not suitable for most domestic and irrigation purposes and are mainly from the Keta aquifers; and intermediate salinity groundwaters comprising groundwater from the Keta basin aquifers with minor contributions from the other major terrains. The major water type identified in this study is the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, which degrades into predominantly Na-Cl-SO4 more saline groundwaters toward the coast. Stable isotope data analyses suggest that groundwater in the Voltaian aquifers is largely of recent meteoric origin. The Birimian and Togo aquifers receive a component of recharge from the tributaries of the Densu and Volta Rivers, after the waters have undergone evaporative enrichment of the heavier isotopes. In the Keta basin, recharge is mainly from precipitation but an observed enrichment of 2H and 18O isotopes is probably due to seawater and evaporative effects since the water table there is very shallow. An analysis of the irrigation quality of groundwater from the six aquifers in the study area using sodium adsorption ratio and electrical conductivity suggests that most of the aquifers supply groundwater of acceptable quality for irrigation. The only exception is the Keta Basin area, where extremely high salinities and SAR values render groundwater from this basin unsuitable for irrigation purposes. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Environmental Earth Sciences en_US
dc.subject Birimian en_US
dc.subject Buem en_US
dc.subject Factor analysis en_US
dc.subject Hierarchical cluster analysis en_US
dc.subject Keta en_US
dc.subject Togo en_US
dc.title An assessment of the origin and variation of groundwater salinity in southeastern Ghana en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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