Chemical composition and sources of particle pollution in affluent and poor neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

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dc.contributor.author Zhou, Z.
dc.contributor.author Dionisio, K.L.
dc.contributor.author Verissimo, T.G.
dc.contributor.author Kerr, A.S.
dc.contributor.author Coull, B.
dc.contributor.author Arku, R.E.
dc.contributor.author Koutrakis, P.
dc.contributor.author Spengler, J.D.
dc.contributor.author Hughes, A.F.
dc.contributor.author Vallarino, J.
dc.contributor.author Agyei-Mensah, S.
dc.contributor.author Ezzati, M.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-02-18T12:41:47Z
dc.date.available 2019-02-18T12:41:47Z
dc.date.issued 2013-12
dc.identifier.other DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044025
dc.identifier.uri http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh/handle/123456789/27601
dc.description.abstract The highest levels of air pollution in the world now occur in developing country cities, where air pollution sources differ from high-income countries. We analyzed particulate matter (PM) chemical composition and estimated the contributions of various sources to particle pollution in poor and affluent neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Elements from earth's crust were most abundant during the seasonal Harmattan period between late December and late January when Saharan dust is carried to coastal West Africa. During Harmattan, crustal particles accounted for 55 μg m-3 (37%) of fine particle (PM 2.5) mass and 128 μg m-3 (42%) of PM10 mass. Outside Harmattan, biomass combustion, which was associated with higher black carbon, potassium, and sulfur, accounted for between 10.6 and 21.3 μg m -3 of fine particle mass in different neighborhoods, with its contribution largest in the poorest neighborhood. Other sources were sea salt, vehicle emissions, tire and brake wear, road dust, and solid waste burning. Reducing air pollution in African cities requires policies related to energy, transportation and urban planning, and forestry and agriculture, with explicit attention to impacts of each strategy in poor communities. Such cross-sectoral integration requires emphasis on urban environment and urban poverty in the post-2015 Development Agenda. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Environmental Research Letters en_US
dc.subject Africa en_US
dc.subject Air pollution en_US
dc.subject Particulate matter en_US
dc.subject Source apportionment en_US
dc.subject Sustainable development en_US
dc.subject Urbanization en_US
dc.title Chemical composition and sources of particle pollution in affluent and poor neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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