Environmental Impact Of The Mobile Telecommunication Technology In Accra, Ghana

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dc.contributor.author Agbosu, W.K.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-04-12T14:41:14Z
dc.date.available 2018-04-12T14:41:14Z
dc.date.issued 2015-12
dc.identifier.uri http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh/handle/123456789/22956
dc.description Thesis (PhD) en_US
dc.description.abstract Currently, there are over 10,000 telecommunication base stations (BSs) in Ghana. Experts insist the number of BSs is practically inadequate to ensure quality service nationwide. However, in Accra and other urban centers the installation of BSs to expand coverage has met opposition from the public. Accra has a population density of over 15,000 persons per km2 with an annual growth rate of 4.4%; hence, the number of people estimated to live closer to BSs is higher in Accra than in any other city in Ghana. This study was carried out to assess the environmental impact (EI) of the devices of the mobile telecommunication technology (MTT) that depends on the frequencies 900MHz and 1800MHz. The study focused on critical perspectives of exposure to radiofrequencies, risk assessment, perception and communication as well as waste and noise pollution. Individual Based Models (IBMs) are therefore deemed appropriate for predicting the level of environmental impact as evaluated at the local level by a well-informed individual. The methodology for data collection involved both the quantitative and qualitative approaches. The significant activities performed included measurements of some physical and chemical environmental pollutants (quantities) and the administration of questionnaire to help understand the influence of human behaviour on the MTT. A statistical package (SPSS) was used in the data analysis, which included; Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation analysis, Principal component analysis (PCA), Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Cluster analysis (CA), or otherwise combining both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques (Chi-square) were used to analyze the data for comparison between groups at 0.05 (95%) level of significance. The results of this study indicated reality and perception or a combination of both depending critically on the source of information to the public. Radiation levels (electric field values) at the vicinity of BSs were below the ICNIRP threshold of 41.25V/m (SAR of 4.5W/m2) and 58.3V/m (SAR of 9W/m2) for frequencies of 900MHz and 1800MHz respectively. Noise levels from generator sets at BSs in residential areas were not always below the EPA threshold of 48dB within the hours of 22:00pm to 06:00am at a distance of 50m from BSs. Heavy metals at specific levels in mg/kg at dumpsites indicated that, Hg and Cd levels were not below the US EPA (2011) threshold of 0.2mg/kg and 1.2mg/kg respectively. Questionnaire survey was necessary to provide information on what the public considered risky but has been proven otherwise scientifically. Information gathered revealed that, what is lacking is an effective strategic environmental communication which ought to be supervised by the MMDA to eliminate some of the variables that increase the RVI. At the end of the study, it was concluded that, Hg and Cd may pose potential health risk to the public whilst noise may equally pose potential health risk to inhabitants living nearby BSs. Considering the routes of contact of heavy metals to individuals, the recovery and recycling of all WEEE must be encouraged to reduce its adverse effect in the future. Again, minimum setback distances must be strictly enforced using passive barriers, though the use of active barriers is equally important. Indeed, there should therefore be a careful examination of all uncertainties and the transparency of assumptions and limitations at this early stage. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Ghana en_US
dc.subject Environmental Impact en_US
dc.subject Mobile Telecommunication Technology en_US
dc.subject Accra en_US
dc.subject Ghana en_US
dc.subject Sanitation en_US
dc.title Environmental Impact Of The Mobile Telecommunication Technology In Accra, Ghana en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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