|Title:||Profiling of some Amoxicillin Drugs in Ghana Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy|
University of Ghana, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications
|Publisher:||University of Ghana|
|Abstract:||The prevalence of counterfeit drugs is seen as a problem faced in both developed and developing countries where Ghana is not an exception. Antibiotics are amongst the most counterfeit drugs in developing countries. What is less understood is that there are inadequate and ineffective quality control procedures in monitoring of drugs manufactured and imported into the country. This research work is aimed at contributing towards the development of routine analytical procedures that will facilitate distinguishing between fake and genuine amoxicillin drugs. This was accomplished by elaborating operating procedures for the analysis of specific antibiotic drug using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and establishing the NMR profile of active principal ingredient (API) of amoxicillin drug and assessing the API in samples of amoxicillin drug purchased in Accra. Three brands of amoxicillin samples consisting of imported amoxicillin, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) amoxicillin were purchased from a licensed pharmacy shop in Accra and amoxicillin purchased from Okaishie market were used for analysis. Standard amoxicillin known as amoxicillin trihydrate obtained from Ernest Chemist in Accra was also used analysed. The authenticity of the drugs was analysed using 1H and C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Upon analysis H-NMR and C-13 NMR profiles were obtained for the API (Amoxicillin Trihydrate) in amoxicillin. H NMR showed relatively higher sensitivities for the drug than C-13 NMR therefore analysis for the antibiotics was focused on H-NMR. After analysis amoxicillin trihydrate was identified as the API. A procedure suitable for NMR sample preparation of amoxicillin for NMR analysis was elaborated. Dimethyl sulfoxide was identified as a suitable solvent for the experiments. The samples were prepared by dissolving suitable quantities (10mg) of the drug in (1ml) of the chosen solvent. NMR technique was used to provide an NMR profile for the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). With the profile it was possible to identify the presence of API in all the amoxicillin samples studied. There were differences in the number of hydrogen peaks and intensity values for the peaks. This therefore provided a means for identifying the different types of drugs using the structure of the API. NMR analysis requires small sample size as compared to other analytical techniques. Analysis is faster, does not require much time.|
|Description:||Thesis (MPhil) - University of Ghana, 2016|
|Appears in Collections:||Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications|
|Profiling of some Amoxicillin Drugs in Ghana Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy _ 2016.pdf||3.99 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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